Sunday, 2 February 2014

ASSIGNMENT CHAPTER 15 fr0m Lecture : Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir, M.Sc

Chapter Review Pages 812 – 813
Discovering Computer (“Living In the Digital World 2011”)
Lecture       :        Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir, M.Sc
Student      :        Williem [1701309721]

1.      What Career Opportunities Are Available in the Computer Industry?
·         3D Animation or Graphic design
Description: A position where you design and create either a graphic or 3D animations for software programs, games, movies, web pages, etc. Position may also require that you work on existing graphics, animations, movies, etc. done by other people.
·         Customer service
Description: Helping customers with general questions relating to the company, ordering, status on orders, account information or status, etc.
·         Data Entry
Description: A job that commonly requires the employee to take information from a hard copy or other source and enter it into an electronic format. Position may also be taking electronic data and entering it into a database for easy sorting and locating.
·         Database
Description: A job that requires creating, testing, and maintaining one or more database.
Electronics technician or engineer
·         Engineer
Description: An engineer is someone who is at the top of their class and almost always someone who has or is working on a college degree or several certifications. Although used broadly in this document, the engineer is usually specified in the job requirement. For example, a software development engineer may be a highly skilled computer programmer.
·         Freelancer
Description: Thanks to the Internet its possible for anyone to become a freelancer and apply for one of the millions of positions available around the Internet. See our how to make money on the Internet page for a listing of online services that list work available for freelancers.
·         Hardware
Description: A position as a hardware designer, circuit design, embedded systems, firmware, etc. is a job that requires you to design and create a complete hardware package or portions of a hardware device.
·         Networking or System Administrator
Description: Computer networking jobs involve designing, setting up, and maintaining a network.
·         Programmer or Software developer
Description: A job that requires the development or continued development and maintenance of a software program.
·         Quality Assurance (QA), System analyst or Tester
Description: This job requires that the employee test out all features of a product for any problems or usability issues.
·         Repair and fix
Description: A job that requires you to fix and repair computer and computer equipment. Often this involves removing a component from within the computer and replacing it with a good component.
·         Sales
Description: Selling a product or service to another person or company.
Technical Support (Technician or Help Desk)
Description: Helping an end-user or company employee with their computers, software program, and hardware device. A technical support position is a great first step for people interested in working in the computer industry.
·         Technical Writing
Description: This position often involves creating or editing technical papers or manuals.
·         Security expert
Description: Test and find vulnerabilities in a system, hardware device, or software program.
·         Webmaster or Web Designer
Description: A job where a person creates, maintains, or completely designs a web page.

2.      What Are the Functions of Jobs in an IT Department?
Application Systems Analysis
Conducts technical analysis of application systems and specification of technical requirements for maintenance/enhancement activities.
Application Systems Development/Maintenance
Designs technical specifications and programming of application components for distributed applications. Monitors, updates and maintains applications.
Business Systems Analysis
Formulates and defines systems scope and objectives through research and fact-finding combined with an understanding of applicable business systems and industry requirements. Includes analysis of business and user needs, documenting requirements, and revising existing system logic difficulties as necessary.
Computer Operations
Monitors several servers, storage devices, and other input and output equipment. Executes backup and recovery procedures. Manages input and output media. Alerts technical support staff when problems occur. Escalates issues as appropriate. Monitors facility security.
Data Input
Verifies and corrects source documents. Inputs data from source documents.
Data Warehouse Administration
Designs and maintains database architecture, metadata, and data repositories.
Database Administration
Administers computerized databases. Directs backup and recovery of data and efficient and appropriate use of DBMS software and services.
Database Analysis/Design
Designs databases by working with users to develop data requirements. Creates and maintains database dictionaries, and assures efficient and appropriate use of DBMS software and services.
Decision Support Analysis
Analyzes and fulfills user requests for information from university and other data sources.
Department IT Administration
Administers information technology functions including but not limited to network management/administration, systems analysis, web, programming, database administration, server administration, computer and auxiliary operations.
Department Network Administration
Administers network activities and functions for a designated department or program. Uses information, software, hardware, policies, and procedures to plan, configure, operate, optimize, and troubleshoot networks of communicating devices. Coordinates activities with personnel at all levels including other campus network managers and core network administrators.
Documentation/Technical Writing
Develops and implements printed and online documentation including programming and operations documents, user manuals, and help screens.
End User Support
Provides first level automation support to unit/department. May include evaluation of hardware/software needs, training/documentation of automated processes and general computer support.
Help Desk/Information Center
Identifies, prioritizes, and resolves reported problems including voice, data, account administration, email, desktop, and institutional applications issues. Works with other support and technology groups to manage an effective triage and resolution procedure.
Information Security
Ensures the safety of information and information systems. Protects systems from intentional or inadvertent access or destruction. Identifies and establishes necessary campus policies and procedures.
Information Systems Auditing
Ensures that appropriate controls exist, that processing is efficient and accurate, and that information systems procedures are in compliance with institutional standards.
IT Project Management
Executes and develops project plans, goals, and budgets. Identifies resources required for complex information technology projects. Guides and performs strategic analysis for projects.
IT Staff Supervision
Provides direction, coaching, staff development, training and mentoring to assigned staff. Supervises two or more full-time employees, or their equivalent, on a regular basis. Makes decisions regarding hiring, evaluation, promotion and termination of employees, or makes related recommendations that are given particular weight.
Network Administration
Plans, designs, and implements communications networks for voice and data. Coordinates day-to-day operations, maintenance, monitoring, software installation, protocol configuration, and problem resolution.
Network Planning
Identifies changes and trends in network (routers, hubs, etc.) and systems technology. Develops relevant plans and proposals for the incorporation of trends into the campus infrastructure.
Network Security Administration
Plans, designs, and implements security procedures and standards for the data network. Coordinates day-to-day operations, maintenance, monitoring, software installation, protocol configuration, and problem resolution specifically focused on preventing and responding to security breaches.
Operating System Administration
Administers and directs installation, maintenance, configuration and integrity of operating system software. Administers network and disk configuration, data backup, security, software patches and upgrades.
Operations Administration
Administers, monitors and directs all aspects of the daily operation for data centers or similar operations. Assures appropriate input and back-up procedures are followed. Updates procedures. Corrects errors, troubleshoots and contacts vendors or systems staff as needed.
Operations Support
Provides technical support for data center or similar operations.
Production Control
Schedules batch jobs. Coordinates batch and online schedules. Performs basic quality assurance.
Research Computing: Graphics Consulting
Defines, designs, purchases and implements 2D and 3D interactive graphics systems, software tools and applications. Provides technical consulting and programming expertise for scientific visualization, 2D and 3D computer graphics, and virtual reality applications. Gives tours and demonstrations of virtual reality and scientific visualization technology. Provides instruction in the use of 3D graphics libraries, virtual reality programming libraries and scientific visualization applications.
Research Computing: Statistical Analysis / User Support
Assists users with experiment design, database design, software selection, data entry specifications, data collection design and data analysis. Conducts tutorials and workshops. Provides statistical and application support.
Research Computing: Systems Analysis / User Support
Designs, implements and supports new and High Performance Computing (HPC) ( i.e.. supercomputer) technologies. Designs, purchases and implements hardware and software tools and applications. Designs, implements and supports grid computing technology. Evaluates, extends and implements grid computing systems. Provides FORTRAN, user, grid application and programming support.
Research Computing: Workstation Support
Installs and configures UNIX / Linux operating systems including network and security. Designs, purchases and implements workstations. Installs and operates applications.
Server Administration
Designs server hardware configurations. Monitors and maintains server hardware. Coordinates procurement, maintenance and repair operations with vendors.
Systems Programming
Designs, develops and supports operating system utilities, messaging applications, and middleware systems. Installs and coordinates configuration of software packages.
Conducts training and educational programs for information systems or user personnel.
Web Administration
Coordinates the integration of the web with other computer systems. Reviews web sites for adherence to organization specifications and standards. Troubleshoots system-related problems as needed.
Web Development/Maintenance
Designs and builds web pages using a variety of graphics software applications, techniques, and tools. Designs develops, and maintains user interface features and web page content.
Workstation Support
Provides workstation hardware and software technical support including peripherals such as printers and handheld devices. Coordinates acquisition, installation, and upgrades of end user hardware and software. Provides access to shared file, print, and backup services. May support applications. Assists with end user questions and problems. Researches and recommends new technology.
3.      How Are Trade Schools Different from Colleges?
Trade school: Technical schools teach the science behind the occupation, while vocational schools focus on hands-on application of skills needed to do the job. You may earn a diploma or a certificate, prepare for a licensing exam, or study to begin work as an apprentice or journeyman in a skilled trade, offers programs primarily in the areas of programming, Web design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking, personal computer support, and security. Students learn specific skills instead of taking a broad range of science and humanities courses, which can result in time savings for students.

4.      How Are the Various College Computer-Related Courses of Study Different?
Three broad disciplines in higher education produce the majority of entry- level employees in the computer industry.
·         Computer information systems (CIS), or information technology (IT), programs teach technical knowledge and skills and focus on how to apply these skills.
·         Computer science (CS) programs stress the theoretical side of programming and operating systems, computer science as a theoretical study of computation and algorithmic reasoning. These programs often feature the theory of computation, analysis of algorithms, formal methods, concurrency theory, databases, computer graphics, and systems analysis, among others. They typically also teach computer programming, but treat it as a vessel for the support of other fields of computer science rather than a central focus of high-level study.
·         Computer engineering (CE) is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture.

5.      How Can People Stay Current with Changing Technology?
A.    Get your hands on the new technology as soon as you can. Go to your local office supply store to test out display models.  Find a friend or coworker who can give you a quick demo of their latest gadget or device.
B.     Beta test new versions of software you use. A lot of software companies will offer a beta version of new software that you can demo or try for free even before the initial release to the public.  Test them out on your home computer so you’re already a proficient user when the upgrade finally rolls out at the office.  Most IT departments will look for internal staff to help beta test software for the company before it’s rolled out company-wide.  Talk with your IT staff and find out how you can be included in those opportunities at the office, too.  Volunteer to test it out at your desk first.
C.     Utilize the free online training tutorials and resources offered by many software and technology companies to help get you started. is also packed full of free training and demonstrations if you search for them.  Microsoft also provides extensive free online training for all of their Office suite programs. You know your coworkers are going to be asking you questions about the software when they start using it anyway, so get a head start and begin mastering it as soon as you possibly can.
D.    Research software packages that you need to learn to remain competitive and LEARN THEM.  Consider website development training – basic website development, basic HTML, and blogging.  Learn how to utilize social media for business use. Almost every company is utilizing or shifting to web-based, collaborative platforms, and you need to understand how to use these technologies. Master the core Microsoft Office software programs, then dive into learning the premium suite programs that accompany it. If some of these skills haven’t shown up in your job description yet, it’s just a matter of time before they do.
E.     Talk to recruiters and human resources professionals to find out what skills their clients are looking for. Comb through the help wanted ads and job boards to see what skills are in demand for the types of positions you desire.  Ask your executives what skills they’d like you to develop further as you continue to support them. Better yet, assemble your list and give them some ideas of what you’d like to pursue and why.
F.      Watch the events section of your area newspapers for networking events or open houses hosted by local technology service providers or community colleges.  I love to attend technology related events where I can see the demos and try it for myself.  A lot of times I’m the ONLY administrative professional in the room full of I.T. professionals.  Sometimes I feel very out of place. But I view scoping out the latest technology and resources for my executives so I can tackle it before they start asking me questions about it as part of my responsibility.  I’ll take feeling a bit out of my comfort zone any day over feeling completely ignorant when I’m asked a question about technology my executives need help with.
G.    Subscribe to free newsletters or blog RSS feeds for technology based websites and publications

6.      What Are the Benefits of Certification for Employers, Employees, and Vendors?
·         For employers:
Certification is the objective, measurable way to ensure a professional employer has the knowledge to practice competently. Certification in something demonstrates a person who get certified has both specialized knowledge and experience, certification ensures quality workmanship standards and can help keep their workforce up to date with respect to computers and technology.
·         For employees,
Certification can enhance careers, provide better standing as industry professionals, and increase salaries.
·         For vendors,
Certification is a form of industry self-regulation that sets computer profession- also competence standards and raises the level of expertise and knowledge in the IT industry as a whole.

7.      How Can People Prepare for Certification?
1)      Take every practice test you can get your hands on.
I’ve taken many certification tests over the years, and in my opinion, this is the No. 1 thing you can do to help your chances of passing.
Not only does working through practice tests reinforce your knowledge of the subject, it puts you in an environment similar to what you’ll face on test day. You will start to understand how the test-writers think, and see the way in which questions are asked.
Practice tests can be found in books, on CDs, and all over the Internet. Find them. Take them.
2)      Time your tests.
You may not want to time your tests at first, but eventually, make it a habit. If you spend four hours taking a practice test that you will only have two hours to do in the testing center, you’ll be in for a big shock when you run out of time halfway through your exam.
Use a watch, kitchen timer, or your cell phone’s stopwatch function. Just make sure you do it. Taking a test under time pressure is completely different than strolling through the test, making sure you analyze each question for 10 minutes before deciding on an answer.
3)      Use multiple prep methods.
Don’t rely on just one certification book. Go to forums on websites like, and and talk to others who have taken the test recently. Find out what their experience was like. Try out computer-based training from companies like CBT Nuggets. Having multiple sources of information gives you a much better idea of what to expect.
4)      Get plenty of sleep the night before the test.
Does this sound obvious? Well, you’d be surprised at how many people spend the night before a certification test cramming, and show up at the test center bleary-eyed with their minds in a fog.
Studies have shown that being well-rested is a key factor in doing well on a test. Your mind is clear and refreshed, and you can focus and concentrate better, and for longer. Cramming is good; just do it in the days preceding the test, not the night before. That’s the time to recharge your internal batteries to go out and ace the exam.
5)      Find a study group.
Remember how well study groups worked in college? They work just as well when studying for a certification exam. Find a group of fellow techies at work who might be working on the same test and study during lunch, or on social sites like Craigslist. Also check out the forums on sites from certification vendors like Microsoft, Cisco, Red Hat, CompTIA and others.
6)      Don’t take the test until you’re ready.
What I mean by this is that you shouldn’t consider taking a certification exam until you have real-world experience with the technology being tested. Make sure you have several years of daily security experience.
Potential employers can usually sniff out “paper” certification holders a mile away. Those are certified individuals with no real-world experience; they passed the exam by studying books or videos, or taking a class. Paper certification holders are not only unlikely to get hired -- if they do somehow get a job, they’ll be completely unprepared to perform their job duties, because they’ve never done it in a live environment.

8.      What Are the General Areas of  IT Certification?
Certifications usually are classified based on the computer industry area to which they most closely relate:
·         Application software,
·         operating systems,
·         programmer/developer,
·         hardware,
·         networking,
·         digital forensics, 
·         security,
·         the Internet,
·         and database systems.

9.      What Are Some Specific IT Certifications in Each Certification Area?
A.    Application software certifications, sometimes called end-user certifications
·         Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS),
·         Microsoft Certified Application Professional (MCAP),
·         Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST),
·         Adobe Certified Associate,
·         Adobe Certified Expert (ACE),
·         Adobe Certified Instructor (ACI)
·         IBM Certified Professional for Lotus Software.
B.     Operating system certifications include
·         IBM Certified Specialist,
·         Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP),
·         Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS),
·         Novell Certified Linux Professional (CLP),
·         Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE),
·         Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT),
·         Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA). 
C.     Programmer/developer certifications include 
·         Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP),
·         IBM Certified Solution Developer,
·         Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD),
·         Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA),
·         Sun Certified Java Developer (SC J D),
·         Sun Certified Java Programmer (SC J P),
·         Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD).
D.    Hardware certifications include
·         A +,
·         Dell Certified Systems Expert,
·         IBM eServer Certified Specialist.
·         Networking certifications include
·         Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA),
·         Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP),
·         Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE),
·         Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA),
·         Network +, Novell Certified Administrator (CNA),
·         Novell Certified Engineer (NCE),
·         Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA).
E.     Digital forensics certifications include
·         Certified Computer Examiner (CCE),
·         Certified Computer Forensics Examiner (CCFE),
·         Certified Electronic Evidence Collection Specialist (CEECS),
·         Certified Information Forensics Investigator (CIFI).
F.      Security certifications include
·         Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP),
·         Security Certified Network Architect (SCNA),
·         Security Certified Network Professional (SCNP),
·         Security Certified Network Specialist (SCNS),
·         Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP).
·         Internet certifications include Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW)
·         Certified Web Professional (CWP).
G.    Database certifications include
·         IBM Certified Solutions Expert – DB2,
·         IBM Certified Solutions Expert – Informix,
·         Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP),
·         Oracle Certified Professional (OCP)
·         Sybase Certified Professional.